The basic prerequisite for dental implant placements is sufficient bone structure, in height and width.
It often happens that there is not enough bone to place the implants, because after the removal of the teeth there is resorption i.e. bone loss, especially if the tooth has not been replaced for a long time after the extraction.
Bone augmentation / bone graft is a surgical procedure that includes a variety of procedures used to build bone so that dental implants can be placed. These procedures typically involve grafting bone or bone-like materials to the jaw. Vertical bone augmentation increases the height of the jaw bone, and horizontal bone augmentation increases its thickness. Autologous augmentation is bone augmentation using patients’ own bones. The bone is transplanted from the part of the jaw where there is enough bone (most often the chin or the area behind the molars) to the part of the jaw where the bone is needed.
Artificial bone substitutes are more commonly used today, because the procedure is simpler, faster and less stressful for the patient. In a certain period of time, the artificial bone completely coalesces with the environment. Artificial bone augmentation also has its own limitations and, in the case of more extensive bone compensation, we must apply autologous augmentation.
In the case of less extensive augmentation, when we have a relatively large amount of bone, we can perform the procedure of augmentation simultaneously with the implant placement.
In cases of extensive augmentation, when there is a lot of bone missing, we
perform the augmentation first and, after 4 to 6 months after the bone coalesces, we place the implant at that position.
The procedure is completely painless and is done with the use of local anaesthesia.